Personal Injury Legal Glossary – I
Immunity: Grant by the court, which assures someone will not face prosecution in return for providing criminal evidence.
Impaneling: Selecting a jury from the list of potential jurors.
Impeach: Attacking the credibility of a witness.
Impeachment of a Witness: An attack on the credibility (believability) of a witness, through evidence introduced for that purpose.
Incarcerate: To confine in jail.
Inadmissible: That which, under the rules of evidence, cannot be admitted or received as evidence.
In Camera: In a judge’s chambers; in private.
In Camera Inspection: Judge’s private inspection of a document prior to his or her ruling on its admissibility or use at trial.
In Camera Proceedings. Trial or proceeding in a place not open to the public, usually in a judge’s chambers.
Indemnify: To restore the victim of a loss, either in whole or in part, by payment of money or repair or replacement of the thing lost.
Independent Executor: A special kind of executor, permitted by the laws of certain states, who performs the duties of an executor without intervention by the court.
Indeterminate Sentence: A sentence of imprisonment to a specified minimum and maximum period of time, specifically authorized by statute, subject to termination by a parole board or other authorized agency after the prisoner has served the minimum term.
Indictment: A written accusation by a grand jury charging a person with a crime.
Indigent: Needy or impoverished. A defendant who can demonstrate his or her indigence to the court may be assigned a court-appointed attorney at public expense.
Information: Accusatory document, filed by the prosecutor, detailing the charges against the defendant. An alternative to an indictment, it serves to bring a defendant to trial.
Informed Consent: Person’s agreement to allow something to happen, such as a medical procedure, that is based on full disclosure of the facts necessary to make an intelligent decision.
In Forma Pauperis: In the manner of a pauper. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty.
Infraction: A violation of law not punishable by imprisonment. Minor traffic offenses generally are considered infractions.
Inheritance Tax: A state tax on property that an heir or beneficiary under a will receives from a deceased person’s estate. The heir or beneficiary pays this tax.
Initial Appearance: In criminal law, the hearing at which a judge determines whether there is sufficient evidence against a person charged with a crime to hold him or her for trial. The Constitution bans secret accusations, so initial appearances are public unless the defendant asks otherwise; the accused must be present, though he or she usually does not offer evidence. Also called first appearance.
Injunction: Writ or order by a court prohibiting a specific action from being carried out by a person or group. A preliminary injunction is granted provisionally, until a full hearing can be held to determine if it should be made permanent.
In Propria Persona: In court’s it refers to persons who present their own case without lawyers. See Pro Se.
Instructions: Judge’s explanation to the jury before it begins deliberations of the questions it must answer and the applicable law governing the case. Also called charge.
Intangible Assets: Nonphysical items such as stock certificates, bonds, bank accounts, and pension benefits that have value and must be taken into account in estate planning.
Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress: – Intentionally causing severe emotional distress by extreme or outrageous conduct.
Interlocutory: Provisional; not final. An interlocutory order or an interlocutory appeal concerns only a part of the issues raised in a lawsuit.
Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party in a lawsuit for which the opposing party must provide written answers.
Intervention: An action by which a third person who may be affected by a lawsuit is permitted to become a party to the suit. Differs from the process of becoming an amicus curiae.
Inter Vivos Gift: A gift made during the giver’s life.
Inter Vivos Trust: Another name for a living trust.
Intestacy Laws: See descent and distribution statutes.
Intestate: Dying without a will.
Intestate Succession: The process by which the property of a person who has died without a will passes on to others according to the state’s descent and distribution statutes. If someone dies without a will, and the court uses the state’s interstate succession laws, an heir who receives some of the deceased’s property is an intestate heir.
Invitee: A person is an invitee on land if he enters land by invitation; his entry is connected with business being conducted on the land by the possessor of land; and the possessor of land is benefited by the entry.
Irrevocable Trust: A trust that, once set up, the grantor may not revoke.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A condition of abnormally increased spontaneous movement (motility) of the small and large intestine, generally stress can contribute to this condition.
Ischemic Colitis: An inflammation caused by interference with the blood flow to the large intestine. This lack of blood flow leads to death of tissue.
Issue: (1) The disputed point in a disagreement between parties in a lawsuit. (2) To send out officially, as in to issue an order.
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Verdicts & Settlements
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company product liability.
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company product liability.
Jury verdict for the wrongful death of a 63-year-old man survived by his widow.
Verdict against cigarette manufacturer for family of local lawyer who died of lung cancer.
Verdict against tobacco manufacturer for family of man who died from lung cancer as a result of smoking.
Verdict for widow of man who died of lung cancer as a result of addiction to smoking.
Gordon and Partners, along with co-counsel, recently represented the family of a smoker who passed away when she was 60 years old from lung cancer caused from her long time addiction to smoking cigarettes since she was a young girl. The case was tried in Lowell, Massachusetts and resulted in a verdict of 17 million dollars on May 31, 2019.
Recovery for man and family for injuries caused by a defective auto part.
Verdict for a smoker who contracted cancer of the jaw.
A Pinellas County jury verdict for the estate of a man who died of lung cancer at the age of 42.
Jury verdict for the wrongful death of a 68-year-old man from lung cancer from smoking cigarettes manufactured by RJR and Philip Morris.
Recovery for man who suffered brain injury and paralysis after collision with Blood Mobile.
Jury verdict for the wrongful death of a 97-year-old woman at an ALF.
Negligent supervision at Assisted Living Facility resulting in death.
Negligent failure to diagnose cancer.
Verdict against tobacco company on behalf of estate of woman who died of lung cancer.
Jury verdict in drowning death of autistic boy at a construction site.
Jury verdict for the family of a 23-year-old woman killed in a tractor-trailer accident.
Failure to diagnose spine fracture resulting in paralysis.
Settlement for a 54-year-old woman who suffered brain damage during a hip replacement surgery because the anesthesiologist failed to recognize that her respiratory levels had significantly dropped for nine minutes during the surgical procedure..
Jury verdict for family of mother of two killed in tractor-trailer accident.
Settlement against Iowa broker-dealer and investment adviser in non-opt out securities class action for purchasers of restricted securities.